Evidence-Based Classification

Competition in Paralympic sport is based on systems of classification. The Classification Code of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), mandates the development of evidence-based systems in all para-sports to improve the validity of Paralympic classification. An evidence-based system is one in which the purpose of the system is stated unambiguously; empirical evidence indicates the methods used for assigning classes will achieve the stated purpose.

Evidence-based practice is a growing movement in the health and educational disciplines that recommends an emphasis on research outcomes during decision-making in practice. Evidence-based is made possible through evidence-based research, which attempts to synthesize the volume and scientific rigor of intervention effectiveness.

The vision of the Paralympic movement is “to enable Paralympic Athletes to achieve sporting excellence and inspire and excite the World” and evidence-based classification systems are critical for fully realizing this vision.

Aims:

  • Provide ideas to suppport and improve the classification system used for IFCPF sports by evidence-based research.
  • Develop Research questions that can be used by researchers for future research programs/proposals. Particularly related to classification of athletes that meet the current IFCPF classification rules.
  • Monitor international research of classification in paralympic sport and in particular for athletes with CP, ABI and other neurological conditions similar to the athletes that meet the minimum criteria for IFCPF classification system.
  • Establish collaborations with other research groups, individuals and/or sport federations which are working in the field of evidencedbased classification research.
  • Communication of results and reports, representing IFCPF at scientific meetings related with sports for persons with disabilities. 

 

Evidence-Based Classification and Research in CP-Football:

The current classification system is based on a combination of different approaches (i.e., quantitative/qualitative) in line with evidence-based practices and according to the International Paralympic Committee Classification Code. From 2012-2013 when CP football was governed by the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CPISRA) to the transition to an independent specific para-sport international federation (IFCPF), the approach has been to meet the compliance of the International Paralympic Committee Classification Code with evidence-based methods.

The CP football classification committee and the rest of the organization, members, collaborators, and para-athletes have been important efforts to meet the requirements of the Code. These efforts are traduced in different research and academic work supporting the classification system which transfers all this knowledge to practical methods during the class allocation of para footballers.

The following section is presented the available scientific literature on the topic, infographics, and posters/lectures presented at international conferences:

Evidence-based classification in paralympic sport: Application to football-7-a-side

Reina, R. (2014). Evidence-based classification in paralympic sport: Application to football-7-a-side. European Journal of Human Movement, 32, 161-185.

Download Evidence-based classification in paralympic sport: Application to football-7-a-side

 

 

Change of direction ability performance in cerebral palsy football players according to functional profiles

Reina, R., Sarabia, J.M., Yanci, J., García-Vaquero, M.P., y Campayo-Piernas, M. (2016) Change of direction ability performance in cerebral palsy football players according to functional profiles. Frontiers in Physiology, 6:409. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00409

Download Change of direction ability performance in cerebral palsy football players according to functional profiles

Evaluation of the official match external load in soccer players with cerebral palsy

Yanci, J., Castillo, D., Iturricastillo, A., y Reina, R. (2017). Evaluation of the official match external load in soccer players with cerebral palsy. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33, 866-873. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002085

How does the ball influence the performance of change of direction and sprint tests in para-footballers with brain impairments? Implications for evidence-based classification in CP-Football

Reina, R., Sarabia, J.M., Caballero, C., y Yanci, J. (2017). How does the ball influence the performance of change of direction and sprint tests in para-footballers with brain impairments? Implications for evidence-based classification in CP-Football. PLos One, 12(11): e0187237. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187237

Download How does the ball influence the performance of change of direction and sprint tests in para-footballers with brain impairments? Implications for evidence-based classification in CP-Football

Vertical and horizontal jump capacity in international cerebral palsy football players

Reina, R., Iturricastillo, A., Sabido, R., Campayo-Piernas, M., y Yanci, J. (2018). Vertical and horizontal jump capacity in international cerebral palsy football players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13, 597-603. DOI: 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0321

External match loads of footballers with cerebral palsy: A comparison among sport classes

Yanci, J., Castillo, D., Iturricastillo, A., Urbán, T., y Reina, R. (2019). External match loads of footballers with cerebral palsy: A comparison among sport classes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13, 590-596. DOI: 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0042

A mathematical model for decision-making in the classification of para-footballers with different severity of coordination impairments

Pastor D., Campayo-Piernas M., Pastor J.T., y Reina R. (2019). A mathematical model for decision-making in the classification of para-footballers with different severity of coordination impairments. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(12), 1403-140. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1560617.

Activity limitation and match load in para-footballers with cerebral palsy: An approach for evidence-based classification

Reina, R., Iturricastillo, A., Castillo, D., Urbán, T., y Yanci, J. (2019). Activity limitation and match load in para-footballers with cerebral palsy: An approach for evidence-based classification. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. DOI: 10.1111/sms.13583

Evaluation of the bilateral function in para-athletes with spastic hemiplegia: a model-based clustering approach

Reina, R., Barbado, D., Soto-Valero, C., Sarabia, J.M., y Roldán, A. (2020). Evaluation of the bilateral function in para-athletes with spastic hemiplegia: a model-based clustering approach. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sports. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2020.01.003

Validity and reliability of a test battery to assess change of directions with ball dribbling in para-footballers with cerebral palsy

Daniel, L.F., Reina, R., Gorla, J.I., Bastos, T., y Roldan, A. (2020). Validity and reliability of a test battery to assess change of directions with ball dribbling in para-footballers with cerebral palsy. Brain Sciences, 10(2), 74. DOI: 10.3390/brainsci10020074

Download Validity and reliability of a test battery to assess change of directions with ball dribbling in para-footballers with cerebral palsy

Physical demands by para-footballers with cerebral palsy in a small-sided game

Matías HENRÍQUEZ, Sonny RIQUELME, Marco ABARCA, Felipe MORALES, Raúl REINA (2020). Physical demands by para-footballers with cerebral palsy in a small-sided game. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2020 May 20. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10514-0

 

 

Download Infographic "Physical demands by para-footballers with cerebral palsy in a small-sided game"

Anthropometrical Features of Para-Footballers According to Their Cerebral Palsy Profiles and Compared to Controls

Sarabia, J. M., Doménech, C., Roche, E., Vicente-Salar, N., & Reina, R. (2020). Anthropometrical Features of Para-Footballers According to Their Cerebral Palsy Profiles and Compared to Controls. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(23), 9071. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239071 

Evaluation of the bilateral function in para-athletes with spastic hemiplegia: A model-based clustering approach

Reina, R., Barbado, D., Soto-Valero, C., Sarabia, J. M., & Roldán, A. (2020). Evaluation of the bilateral function in para-athletes with spastic hemiplegia: A model-based clustering approach. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 23(8), 710–714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.01.003

Download Infographic "Evaluation of the bilateral function in para-athletes with spastic hemiplegia: A model-based clustering approach"

Internal training load and performance indices of cerebral palsy football players and effects of one week with and without training on heart rate variability

de Freitas, V. H., Nakamura, F. Y., Faria, F. R. de, Dantas, M. J. bezerra, Souza, N. C., Buratti, J. R., Freitas, A. de, Figueiredo, D. H., Golçalves, H. R., Junior, W. N., & Gorla, J. I. (2020). Internal training load and performance indices of cerebral palsy football players and effects of one week with and without training on heart rate variability. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(5), 3017–3022. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2020.s5410

Performance Analysis in Football-Specific Tests by Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy: Implications for Evidence-Based Classification

Yanci, J., Castillo, D., Iturricastillo, A., Aracama, A., Roldan, A., & Reina, R. (2021). Performance Analysis in Football-Specific Tests by Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy: Implications for Evidence-Based Classification. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 16(9), 1328–1334. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0370

Download Infographic "Performance Analysis in Football-Specific Tests by Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy: Implications for Evidence-Based Classification"

THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG REPEATED SPRINT AND CHANGE OF DIRECTION ABILITIES IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

Henriquez, M.J., Kokaly, M., Herrera, F. & Reina, R. (2020). THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG REPEATED SPRINT AND CHANGE OF DIRECTION ABILITIES IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY. Kinesiology, 52 (2), 208-216. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.52.2.6

Download Infographic "THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG REPEATED SPRINT AND CHANGE OF DIRECTION ABILITIES IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY"

Characterization and association of the physical performance of Chilean football players with cerebral palsy

Henríquez, M., Herrera, F., Muñoz, F., Luarte Rocha, C., Fernández, M., Bueno, D., Zapata Huenullan, C., Borin, J. P., & Castelli Correia de Campos, L. F. (2021). Caracterización y asociación del rendimiento físico en futbolistas Chilenos con parálisis cerebral (Characterization and association of the physical performance of Chilean football players with cerebral palsy). Retos, 40, 126–134. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v1i40.81292

Change-of-Direction Ability of Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy Under a New Evidence-Based and Sport-Specific Classification System

Peña-González, I., Roldan, A., Toledo, C., Urbán, T., & Reina, R. (2021). Change-of-Direction Ability of Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy Under a New Evidence-Based and Sport-Specific Classification System. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 16(2), 267–272. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0656

Download Infographic "Change-of-Direction Ability of Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy Under a New Evidence-Based and Sport-Specific Classification System"

Comparative external workload analysis based on the new functional classification in cerebral palsy football 7-a-side. A full-season study

J.M. Gamonales , J. Muñoz-Jiménez , Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona & S.J. Ibáñez (2021): Comparative external workload analysis based on the new functional classification in cerebral palsy football 7-a-side. A full-season study, Research in Sports Medicine.https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2021.1888105 

Dynamic and static stability in para-athletes with cerebral palsy considering their impairment profile

Reina, R., Barbado, D., Hernández-Davó, H., & Roldan, A. (2022). Dynamic and static stability in para-athletes with cerebral palsy considering their impairment profile. PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation, 14(3), 366–376. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmrj.12579

Effects of lower limb eccentric strength training on functional measurements inย football players with cerebral palsy

Alarcón, A., Henríquez, M., & Peñailillo, L. (2021). Effects of lower limb eccentric strength training on functional measurements in football players with cerebral palsy. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 14(1), 2. doi: 10.5507/euj.2020.010

Football for people with cerebral palsy: scope review

SÁ, K. S. G. de; MATTOS, Y. C. M. de; CORRÊA, F. H.; VIEIRA, I. B.; GORLA, J. I. Football for people with cerebral palsy: scope review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 17, p. e40101724138, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i17.24138. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/24138. 

Global positioning system activity profile in male para footballers with cerebral palsy: Does training meet the match-play intensity in a three-day national tournament?

Goh, A. M., Ma'ayah, F., Harms, C. A., Newton, R. U., & Drinkwater, E. J. (2021). Global positioning system activity profile in male para footballers with cerebral palsy: Does training meet the match-play intensity in a three-day national tournament?. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 10.1097/PHM.0000000000001919. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001919

Is impaired coordination related to match physical load in footballers with cerebral palsy of different sport classes?

Reina, R., Iturricastillo, A., Castillo, D., Roldan, A., Toledo, C., & Yanci, J. (2021). Is impaired coordination related to match physical load in footballers with cerebral palsy of different sport classes?. Journal of sports sciences, 39(sup1), 140–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2021.1880740

Physical Performance Differences Between Spanish Selected and Nonselected Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy for the National Team

Peña-González, I., Sarabia, J. M., Roldan, A., Manresa-Rocamora, A., & Moya-Ramón, M. (2021). Physical Performance Differences Between Spanish Selected and Nonselected Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy for the National Team. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 16(11), 1676–1683. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0842

Physical responses by cerebral palsy footballers in matches played at sea level and moderate altitude

Henríquez, M., Castillo, D., Yanci, J., Iturricastillo, A., & Reina, R. (2021). Physical responses by cerebral palsy footballers in matches played at sea level and moderate altitude. Research in sports medicine (Print), 1–13. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2021.1966011

Relationship between physical performance and match load and effects of two consecutive matches in cerebral palsy footballers

Peña Gónzalez, I., Sarabia, J. M., Mancha-Triguero, D., Moya-Ramón, M., & Gamonales, J. M. (2021). Relación entre el rendimiento físico y la carga de trabajo en partido y efecto de dos partidos consecutivos en futbolistas con parálisis cerebral (Relationship between physical performance and match load and effects of two consecutive matches in cerebral. Retos, 41, 728–734. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v41i0.86424

Timeโˆ’Motion Characteristics and Physiological Responses of Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy in Two Small-Sided Games and a Simulated Game

Henríquez, M., Iturricastillo, A., González-Olguín, A., Herrera, F., Riquelme, S., & Reina, R. (2021). Time-Motion Characteristics and Physiological Responses of Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy in Two Small-Sided Games and a Simulated Game. Adapted physical activity quarterly : APAQ, 38(2), 232–247. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2020-0077

Download Infographic "Timeโˆ’Motion Characteristics and Physiological Responses of Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy in Two Small-Sided Games and a Simulated Game"

Using Decision Trees to Support Classifiersโ€™ Decision-Making about Activity Limitation of Cerebral Palsy Footballers

Sarabia, J. M., Roldan, A., Henríquez, M., & Reina, R. (2021). Using Decision Trees to Support Classifiers' Decision-Making about Activity Limitation of Cerebral Palsy Footballers. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(8), 4320. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084320

Assessing the sprint force-velocity profile in international football players with cerebral palsy: validity, reliability and sport classโ€™ profiles

Peña-González,I.,Javaloyes,A.,Manuel Sarabia,J. & Moya-Ramón,M.(2022).Assessing the Sprint Force-Velocity Profile in International Football Players with Cerebral Palsy: Validity, Reliability and Sport Class’ Profiles. Journal of Human Kinetics,82(1) 253-262. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2022-0065

Comparison of the Physical Response During Official Matches and Small-Sided Games in International Cerebral Palsy Footballers: Implications for Evidence-Based Classification

Yanci, J., Castillo, D., Iturricastillo, A., Henríquez, M., Roldan, A., & Reina, R. (2022). Comparison of the Physical Response During Official Matches and Small-Sided Games in International Cerebral Palsy Footballers: Implications for Evidence-Based Classification. Adapted physical activity quarterly : APAQ, 1–15. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2021-0206

Neuromuscular Fatigue in Cerebral Palsy Football Players after a Competitive Match According to Sport Classification and Playing Position

Henríquez, Matías, Luis F.C. de Campos, Fernando Muñoz-Hinrichsen, María I. Cornejo, Javier Yanci, and Raul Reina. 2022. "Neuromuscular Fatigue in Cerebral Palsy Football Players after a Competitive Match According to Sport Classification and Playing Position" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 10: 6070. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106070

To What Degree Does Limb Spasticity Affect Motor Performance in Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy?

Roldan, A., Henríquez, M., Iturricastillo, A., Castillo, D., Yanci, J., & Reina, R. (2022). To What Degree Does Limb Spasticity Affect Motor Performance in Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy?. Frontiers in physiology, 12, 807853. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.807853

Characteristics of goals scored in open play at the 2017 and 2018 Australian national cerebral palsy football championship

Goh, A. M., Drinkwater, E. J., Harms, C. A., Scanlan, M., Newton, R. U., & Ma’ayah, F. (2022). Characteristics of goals scored in open play at the 2017 and 2018 Australian national cerebral palsy football championship. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. https://doi.org/10.1177/17479541221095941

SPORT PERFORMANCE EVOLUTION OF FOOTBALL 7- A-SIDE FOR PEOPLE WITH CEREBRAL PALSY: 2012- 2016

Gamonales, J.M.; García-Drake, C.; León, K.; Gámez-Calvo, L. y Muñoz-Jiménez, J. (202x). Sport Performance Evolution of Football 7-A-Side for People with Cerebral Palsy: 2012-2016. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte vol. x (x) pp.xx Pendiente de publicación / In press.

VALIDATION OF SPLIT JUMP AND THE SIDE-STEPPING JUMP COORDINATION TESTS FOR CEREBRAL PALSY FOOTBALL ATHLETES

Nogueira, C. D., Sá, K. S. G. de, Faria, F. R. de, Borges, M., Costa e Silva, A. D. A., & Gorla, J. I. (2022). Validación de las pruebas de coordinación split jump y side-stepping jump para atletas de fútbol con parálisis cerebral: Un paso hacia la clasificación basada en evidencia. Retos, 46, 425–430. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.93234

Impact of maximal strength training on countermovement jump phase characteristics in athletes with cerebral

Fleeton, J. R. M., Sanders, R. H., & Fornusek, C. (2022). Impact of maximal strength training on countermovement jump phase characteristics in athletes with cerebral palsy. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2022.2137303

Analysis of Scored Goals in Cerebral Palsy Football Spanish League

Peña González, Maggiol, Sarabia and  Roldán (2022). Analysis of Scored Goals in Cerebral Palsy Football Spanish League. European Journal of Human Movement, ISSN: 2386-4095, Vol: 48, Page: 46-53

Evidence-Based Classification Infographics:

These infographics aim to approach the scientific information to the CP football global community and related people of the Paralympic movement, showing the scientific work that supports the classification procedures in this para-sport.

CP-Football Classification Education Opportunities

https://learn.ifcpf.com/auth/register

Lectures and Posters Presentation in International Conferences

Download 2019 VISTA Conference: Is possible the linkage of performance determination in team para-sports with classification purposes? An example applied in CP Football. Download 2019 VISTA Conference: The Basis for the Development of a Point-Based Classification System in CP-Football Download 2019 VISTA Conference: Evaluation of Impaired Balance in Para-Athletes Using Smartphones. Download 2019 VISTA Conference: Time Motion Characteristics and Physiological Responses of Para-Footballers with Cerebral Palsy in Two Small Sided Games. Download 2021 International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity (ISAPA): Comparison of the External Load Between Matches Played at Sea- Level and Moderate-Altitude in Cerebral Palsy Footballers Download 2021 International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity (ISAPA): Development of an Observational Scale to Assess Motor Coordination in Para-Footballers with Cerebral Palsy Download 2021 VISTA Conference: Change of Direction Deficit and Asymmetries in Para-Footballers with Cerebral Palsy: An application for Evidence-Based Classification Download 2022 European Conference of Adapted Physical Activity: Influence of Quality of the Opposition in Match Physical Response of Para-Footballers with Cerebral Palsy